exploring phenomena in a sociological manner

Organizational Structure and Effectiveness of TESDA (Technical Education and Skills Development Authority) towards Technical Education among Los Baños, Laguna Residents

Organizational Structure and Effectiveness of TESDA (Technical Education and Skills Development Authority) towards Technical Education among Los Baños, Laguna Residents

Samuel Brando Piamonte

I. Introduction

A. Background of the Study

1. Unemployment and Education

As of July 2010, it is estimated that unemployment in the Philippines is around 6.9 percent wherein 2.7 million Filipinos are jobless according to the National Statistics Office (NSO).

Also, 2.7 million out of the estimated 60.9 million people composed of 15 years old and over do not have jobs. Data show that there is a larger proportion among males (62.6%) than females (37.4%). Lastly, one-third (32.5%) of the unemployed were high school graduates.

Laborers and unskilled workers comprised the largest group at 31.8 percent of the total employed population. On the other hand, farmers, forestry workers and fishermen were the second largest group, making a part of 16.8 percent of the total employed Filipinos.

Unemployment has remained high in the Philippine. Even though there is a moderately fast employment growth in the past decades, employment is still hard for job applicants due to high competency and rapid population growth. Brooks (2002) in his paper concluded that Philippine employment growth and unemployment declines were positively correlated with real GDP growth and somehow negatively with the real minimum wage.

There are many factors for unemployment here in the Philippines. The first reason is overpopulation. Also, discrimination and unreasonable job requirements are also factors that contribute to the unemployment of many Filipinos. Lastly, there are a lot people who have not received proper education.

On education, literacy rate in the Philippines is high. In fact, Philippines is one of the countries in Asia with high literacy level. Filipinos are also fluent in English and this is a main factor which helps Filipinos to be demanded around the world. English is the main language used in schools- from printed materials like books to language used in teaching.

As of 2009, there are 44,691 elementary schools in the Philippines and 10,066 high schools.

School year begins in June and ends in March. Grade school consists of six years and high school consists of four years. On the college level, most universities offer a four year program for a bachelor’s degree. Normally, each year consists of two semesters.

According to the 2003 Functional Literacy, Education and Mass Media Survey (FLEMMS), about one in 10 Filipinos aged 10 to 64 years old cannot read and write. Also, two out of 10 Filipinos are not functionally literate. Knowing these facts, we can say that a definite part of the population is unemployed.

One of the most menacing problems faced by the country is unemployment. Even fresh graduates cannot find a job. Competition on jobs is high due to the country’s high population.

Education is really a factor for employment. In the Philippines, there are three branches responsible for education. One is the Department of Education (DepEd). Another is the Commission on Higher Education (CHED) and lastly, the Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA) which will be the focus of this paper.

2. The Organization

TESDA is a government agency under the Department of Labor and Employment (DOLE). It is responsible for handling technical education in the country. It was created because of Republic Act 7796 or the “Technical Education and Skills Development Act of 1994”.

According to their quality policy, they measure their worth by the satisfaction of their customers through S.E.R.V.I.C.E- strategic decisions, effectiveness, responsiveness, value adding, integrity, citizen focus and efficiency.

We will now examine the structure of TESDA Laguna Provincial Office which handles the technical education of Los Baños, Laguna..

The organization’s complexity can be measured by the extensiveness of its geographic dispersion (spatial differentiation), hierarchy (vertical differentiation), division of labor and specialization among workers (horizontal differentiation).

There are branches of TESDA in each region in the Philippines, from Region 1down to ARMM. Under the national level or main office is the regional level of TESDA.

Figure 1. Branches of TESDA Region IV-A

The spatial differentiation of the organization has been examined. Both the other two complexity elements, horizontal and vertical differentiation, can be present on a certain branch of the organization.

The branch is headed by the director and right after, division of labor can be seen. The administrative staffs consist of an administrative officer financial analyst, procurement and supply officer, special disbursing officer and a driver. Under the Supervising TESD Specialist are three four other divisions.

Another element of organizational structure is formalization which involves control over the individuals (Clegg and Dunkerley, 1980). All workers under TESDA follow the Code of Conduct and Ethical standards for Public Officials and Employees.

Figure 2. Organizational Chart of TESDA Laguna

The last element is centralization which is the distribution of power and decision making within an organization. There is decentralized decision making in the branch. Moreover, the head asks for suggestions and inputs from the from the lower levels.

B. Statement of the Problem

This study aims to answer the major question “How effective are TESDA programs in Los Baños, Laguna?”

To answer the major problem, the study will delimit the major question into three namely:

1. Are training programs easily accessible?

2. Are there many courses offered?

3. What are the problems encountered by the TESDA Laguna Provincial Office in Los Baños?

C. Significance of the Study

This study may help the TESDA Laguna Provincial Office to determine its strengths and weaknesses that will help the organization to improve their programs. The strengths will help them expand more on their programs while the weaknesses that will be revealed will be the challenges that they will face.

Also, this study will help the trainees and applicants to get the organization, the programs offered and the locations more.

II. Discussion

A. Accesibility

When applying, the applicant or student can choose what type of institution he will be studying in. There are three choices for these institutions. One is school based programs which are composed of private and public institutions. Another is community based programs where the organization gets in touch with LGUs and NGOs to set a program on barangays. This is irregular compared to school based programs. Lastly, there is enterprise based programs where the training happens in companies.

Known school based programs can be found in AMA – CLC of Los Baños, Inc., Colegio de Los Baños, Connective Language Training Center, Far East Security Academy, Informatics Computer Institute – Los Baños and Trace Computer College.

These institutions concentrate on Barangay Batong Malake, where the crossing and most establishments can be found. Moreover, it is the center of the town. Only one can be found outside the barangay and that is Far East Security Academy which can be located at Barangay San Antonio, adjacent to Barangay Batong Malake.

This perhaps makes the institutions not diverse and can be problematic to those coming from the extremes of Los Baños. There can be problems on transportation and familiarity of the location.

Also, there is lack of publicity since information regarding the organization’s programs is mostly found on the accredited schools and on the Provincial Office. This will then make the extensiveness of accessibility low.

B. Courses Offered

Types of courses on school based programs vary from food-related, IT, business and general services like security. Most come from the general services and IT related programs. Trace Computer College offers the most number of offered courses compared to other institutions.

Diversity on the type of courses offered by these schools is one strength because applicants have many selections. But we must take note that the applicants are not assured that what they want are offered because limitation still exists even though there is diversity. It is just highly possible that what these applicants desire are present.

AMA – CLC of Los Baños, Inc. Commercial Cooking NC II
AMA – CLC of Los Baños, Inc. Computer Hardware Servicing NC II
AMA – CLC of Los Baños, Inc. Associate in Internet Technology
AMA – CLC of Los Baños, Inc. Computer System and Network Technology
AMA – CLC of Los Baños, Inc. Associate in Business and Information Management
Colegio de Los Baños Caregiving NC II
Connective Language Training Center Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages
Far East Security Academy Security Services NC I
Far East Security Academy Security Services NC II
Far East Security Academy Basic Security Supervisory Course
Informatics Computer Institute – Los Baños Programming NC IV
Trace Computer College Caregiving NC II
Trace Computer College Computer Hardware Servicing NC II
Trace Computer College Programming NC IV
Trace Computer College Bartending NC II
Trace Computer College Hilot (Wellness Massage) NC II
Trace Computer College Finishing Course for Call Center Agents
Trace Computer College Housekeeping NC II
Trace Computer College Food & Beverage Service NC II
Trace Computer College Japanese Language and Culture
Trace Computer College Tourism Promotion Services NC II
Trace Computer College Galing Masahista
Trace Computer College Career Entry Course for Software Developers-Java
Trace Computer College Career Entry Course for Software Developers-Microsoft.Net

Table 1. List of Schools Accredited by TESDA with their Respective Programs

C. Problems Encountered

Problems of the Provincial Office towards Los Baños are extended on other towns in Laguna. The organization experiences limitations on resources, budget, manpower and maintenance. But even though these limitations exist, one good thing is that they get local support.

The limitation on budget is very crucial for there have been issues that there were anomalies in the budget given to TESDA. For example, scholarships are being given to non-existing beneficiaries.

III. Conclusion

The system-resource model will be used in analyzing the effectiveness of the organization. Yuchtman and Seashore in 1967 wrapped up the definition of effectiveness of an organization as the ability to use the environment in the acquisition of scarce and valued resources to maintain processes and functions. They are pointing out on the definition the ability to use the environment and not maximum use for maximum use can lead to total depletion of resources.

In the context of TESDA Provincial Office, even though limitations exist, they can still utilize basic resources to maintain their programs. Thus, they are effective when it comes to the maintenance of their programs.

It should also be taken note that not all domains of the organization are effective. This is what the Contradiction Model says.

TESDA Laguna Provincial Office is effective in sustaining their programs but not in the publicity matters and accessibility.

Thus, this paper concludes that in some cases, the organization is effective but in some, it is not.

III. Recommendations

It is highly recommended to examine and solve first the problems regarding government budget anomalies in the main office before executing a number of new programs. Internal problems should be inspected first. In this way, profit and budget will be maximized if the anomalies were reported, analyzed and solved.

Also, for easy accessibility, it is suggested to have dispersed accredited schools that they do not concentrate on a certain barangay. Moreover, more publicity is also suggested. Using good propaganda techniques, it is highly probable that residents of Los Baños, Laguna who stopped schooling can be persuaded in enrolling.


1. Spain Exchange. The Education System in the Phiippines. Retrieved from http://www.spainexchange.com/guide/PH-education.htm.

2. National Statistics Office. Literacy Status of Filipinos. Retreived from http://www.census.gov.ph/data/sectordata/fl03_lsf.html.

3. Country Studies. Education. Retrieved from http://countrystudies.us/philippines/53.htm.

4. Department of Education. Basic Education Statistics. Retreived from http://www.deped.gov.ph/cpanel/uploads/issuanceImg/Factsheet2009%20Sept%2022.pdf.

5. Monster and Critics. (2010) Philippine unemployment rate eases to 6.9 per cent in July.


6. Philstar. (2010) Unemployment rate eases to 6.9 percent in July. Retrieved from http://www.philstar.com/Article.aspx?articleId=612248&publicationSubCategoryId=200.

7. Business World. (2010) Unemployment rate falls to 6.9% in July. Retrieved from


8. Hall, H. & Tolbert, S. (2005). Organizations: Structures, Processes and Outcomes (9th ed.). New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

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2 responses

  1. sarah

    hay.. buti n lng nkita ko to.. ;) mkkgawa n ko ng ass.. thank you;)

    February 13, 2012 at 7:04 am

  2. Juan P. Alinsunurin

    ano yung JZGMSAT

    November 19, 2012 at 11:45 am

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